Publications Gallery
Below is a list of peer-reviewed publications and conference proceedings. In many of the instances I partnered with other colleagues as we collaborated on the authoring endeavor.

Immediately below are my most recent efforts, synthesizing the current literature in science education, pedagogical content knowledge and online professional development in accordance with completing my doctoral degree. The Dissertation was completed in November, 2010 in Instructional Technology from Virginia Tech, focusing on which interactive learning strategies in self-directed, on-demand electronic professional development are most effective and most preferred by upper elementary teachers in grades 3-6 and will teachers demonstrate significant gains in learning if provided limited support in learner-learner and learner-instructor interaction based on Anderson's 2003 Equivalency of Interaction Theorem?

  • Question 1: What is the current status of online teacher professional development? What trends exist in the area of OPD for teachers of science, particularly at the upper-elementary level? Finally. What research has been conducted with regard to OPD for teachers? Please describe general themes as well as relevant findings, particularly related to science education. How might research in this area inform the development of future OPD for science teachers?

  • Question 2: A conflict with what many people believe to be essential, hands-on learning, with what appears to be necessary in a limited (tight) fiscal situation, scale may be amenable to technological solutions. What does the literature say about such cases. Off the top of my head I’m thinking about everything from “can’t be done,” to blended instruction, to virtual manipulation and everything in between. Summarize with your sense of the tradeoffs that must be made for each solution.

  • Question 3: Question 3: Discuss the literature on the influence of pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge on student learning and teacher instruction in science in elementary classrooms.

  • Question 4: You expressed an interest in examining the effectiveness of professional development efforts. How is effectiveness defined in the literature and what information is needed to determine effectiveness? Based on your readings for Questions 1-3, what other variables or measures (dependent and independent) have been used in studies of professional development for teachers and, more specifically, teachers of science? Have these same variables been used in studies of online professional development? Do any of these variables reflect the influence of pedagogical knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge on student learning or teacher instruction? Given what you now know, is effectiveness the most useful measure to employ in studies of online professional development in science education?

  • Dissertation (Successfully defended November 18, 2010):


Peer Review Publications and Manuscripts

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Developing a Web-Based Mechanism for Assessing Teacher Science Content Knowledge
Journal of Science Teacher Education, Vol. 22, Issue 3, March 2011.
Manuscript discusses one tool to assist educators in diagnosing their gaps in science content knowledge, which then prescribes recommendations to ameliorate gaps through free self-directed electronic professional development resources and opportunities, such as interactive simulation-based learning objects, live web seminars, podcasts, and e-print journal articles and e-chapters.


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Electronic Portfolios in the Professional Development of Educators: Book Chapter
Book: Adaptation, Resistance, and Access to Instructional Technologies: Assessing Future Trends in Education . Edited by Dr. Steven D'Agustino. [in press 2010]
Chapter presents overview of how NSTA's electronic professional development plan and portfolio tool may aid teachers as they plan, track, and document their professional development growth over time.



Evaluation of Online, On-Demand Science Professional Development Material Involving Two Different Implementation Models
Journal of Science Education and Technology, Vol. 17, No. 1, February, 2008.
Paper reviews findings from initial three district pilot NSTA performed with the Force and Motion SciPack that examined both an asynchronous and a blended e-professional development model (asynchronous and synchronous experiences). Significant gains in participant learning across all three districts were achieved as well as significant gains in self-reported levels of confidence in teaching the content. Additional study is underway with several state-based deployments at NSTA in partnership with the West Virginia and Hawaii Departments of Education.


Networking for Leadership, Inquiry, and Systemic Thinking: A New Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning
Journal of Science Education and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2002. EJ643811.
Paper reviews literature calling for implementation of inquiry-centric pedagogy in the science classroom, and addresses a potential reason for its slow rate of adoption. Paper discusses the systemic reform effort, Networking for Leadership, Inquiry, and Systemic Thinking (NLIST), managed by the Council of State Science Supervisors and sponsored by NASA, presenting the theoretical and empirical foundations for the NLIST initiative, its progress, and future goals.


A Rubric for Selecting Inquiry-Based Activities.
NSTA SCIENCE SCOPE, 26(1), 5-12. Sept. 2002. EJ659971.
Evaluating instructional materials for their merits as inquiry activities is challenging for teachers. This article introduces a definition of inquiry and the Rubric for Evaluating Essential
Features of Classroom Inquiry in Instructional Materials, both of which were developed by a NASA sponsored initiative called Networking for Leadership, Inquiry, and Systemic Thinking.


Distance Education Policy: Facing the Issues of Access
Article provides in-depth review of literature on current state of affairs at the time with respect to the Internet digital divide in education in the United States and looks at policy recommendations and standards from national distance education associations.

Uncovering Teachers' Perceptions of the Internet
Virginia Society for Technology in Education Journal
vol. 15, number 1. 2001.
Article provides brief literature review of teachers' perceptions to using the Internet in their classroom and recommends implementing a interview tool to discern local teacher perception that are the largest barriers to use. Sample questions and a portion of the Interview guide are provided.



Creating Virtual Labs to Teach Middle School Astronomy Principles: The NASA Connect Education Program Series
WebNet2001: World Conference on the WWW and Internet. Conference Proceedings. 2001.
Conference proceeding discusses Director-based/shockwave project created for the NASA Langley Research Center.

This web site was also honored with distinction and inclusion in "The Best Instructional Technology Graduate Student Multimedia Archive". This multi-university archive, includes the University of Georgia, the University of Minnesota, Texas A&M University, The University of Houston, The University of Memphis, Utah State University, and Virginia Tech.



Expert Review at a Distance: A Hybrid Approach
EdMedia, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. Conference Proceedings. 2000. ERIC doc: ED458869
Conference proceeding discusses process used for distributed formative evaluation between instructional designers located on the campus of Virginia Tech and the University of Georgia. Brief literature review regarding the principles of formative evaluation are presented. Conference was the 12th Annual EdMedia International Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, June 26-July, 1, 2000.


Interaction, The Key to Successful Distance Learning
EdMedia, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. Conference Proceedings. 2000. ERIC doc: ED458870.
Conference proceeding discusses the successful interaction strategies necessary for e-learning at time and provides a brief literature review and listing of strategies. Projects from NASA that capitalize on these strategies are presented as exemplars. Conference was the 12th Annual EdMedia International Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, June 26-July, 1, 2000.


Intra-university Distance Education: The Added Impact of Collaboration
Open Learning Systems: The Voice of Open Learning,
Issue 69, September 1999.
Article describes collaborative graduate course between Virginia Tech and the University of Georgia using both synchronous ATM compressed video and web-based collaboration via WebCT. Course was on emerging issues in Instructional Technology and featured topics presented by professors from both universities.